Self-Monitoring to Support the Goals of Students With Autism on College Campuses
Watson, E.K., Bross L., Huffman, J.M.(2021). Self-Monitoring to Support the Goals of Students With Autism on College Campuses. TEACHING Exceptional Children, (online first). DOI: 10.1177/00400599211052580
The purpose of this article is to present a step-by-step process for using self-monitoring to support college students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to achieve a variety of goals. Self-monitoring can be used with no technology (e.g., pencil and paper, tangible object placement) or technology-based applications (e.g., interval timers, mobile applications) in non-obtrusive and socially valid ways. College instructors, inclusive postsecondary education (IPSE) program staff, disability office support staff, and other service providers may use this article to guide in the design and implementation of a self-monitoring intervention for college students with ASD. As increasing numbers of transition-age youth with ASD are pursuing higher education, it is important to identify and disseminate a variety of interventions to enhance their college experiences, and self-monitoring is a viable intervention to consider.
Preliminary Investigation of a Self-monitoring Application for a Postsecondary Student with Autism (2019)
Huffman, J. M., Bross, L., Watson, E. K., Wills, H., & Mason, R.(2019). Preliminary Investigation of a Self-Monitoring Application for a Postsecondary Student with Autism. Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders.(early online publication) https://doi.org/10.1007/s41252-019-00124-y
Objectives–Increasing numbers of transition-age youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are pursuing postsecondary education and may benefit from interventions to support them in the college environment. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of a self-monitoring application (app) to increase on-task classroom behavior of a postsecondary student with ASD.
Methods–An alternating treatment design with a baseline and best treatment condition was utilized to examine the efficacy of a technology-based self-monitoring app, I-Connect. One 19-year-old male postsecondary student with ASD used the I-Connect app in a large, lecture-style introductory-level course at a public university. Self-monitoring prompts were delivered via a handheld tablet, and on-task behavior was measured using momentary time sampling.
Results– The participant demonstrated an increase in on-task behavior when using the I-Connect app. However, a functional relation between the use of the app and on-task behavior cannot be concluded due to limitations in the research design.
Conclusion– Implications and suggestions for future research related to supporting postsecondary students with ASD using technology-based self-monitoring interventions are discussed.
The Effects of a Technology-based Self-monitoring Intervention on On-task, Disruptive, and Task-completion Behaviors for Adolescents with Autism (2019)
Rosenbloom, R., Wills, H. P., Mason, R., Huffman, J. M., Mason, B. A. (2019). The effects of a technology-based self-monitoring intervention on on-task, disruptive, and task-completion behaviors for adolescents with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. (Under Review).
The Effect of Web-based Self-monitoring to Increase On-task Behavior and Academic Accuracy of High School Students with Autism (Under Review)
Romans, S. K., Wills, H. P., Huffman, J. M., Garrison-Kane, L. (2019). The effect of web-based self-monitoring to increase on-task behavior and academic accuracy of high school students with autism. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth. (Under Review).
Improving Behavioral and Academic Outcomes for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Testing an App-based Self-monitoring Intervention (2019)
Beckman, A., Mason, B. A., Wills, H. P., Garrison-Kane, L., & Huffman, J. (2019). Improving behavioral and academic outcomes for students with autism spectrum disorder: Testing an app-based self-monitoring intervention. Education and Treatment of Children, 42(2), 225-244. doi.org/10.1353/etc.2019.0011
Self-monitoring (SM) is a behavioral intervention with a long history of successful implementation for students with autism spectrum disorder. Despite the development of sophisticated software applications, they are rarely incorporated into data collection procedures for SM interventions. The current study evaluated an SM application, goal setting, and reinforcement to improve on-task behavior and academic outcomes of two students with ASD. A single-subject ABAB withdrawal design, replicated across both students, demonstrated a functional relation between implementation of the SM application and on-task behavior from baseline (46% and 14%) to intervention (96% and 91%, respectively) phases for both students. One student’s percent accuracy on math story problems improved from baseline (22.7%) to intervention (68.6%), while the second student showed improvement from baseline (21.4%) to intervention (61.6%) in the percentage of total points on a writing rubric. Limitations and implications for future research are offered.
Autism, Self-monitoring, Academic, Behavior
Implementing Self-monitoring to Reduce Inappropriate Vocalizations of an Adult with Autism in the Workplace (2019)
Wills, H. P., Mason, R., Huffman, J. M., & Heitzman-Powell, L. (2019). Implementing self-monitoring to reduce inappropriate vocalizations of an adult with autism in the workplace. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 58, 9-18. doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2018.11.007
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are capable of competitive employment and can work successfully in community businesses. However, it is common for individuals with ASD to be unemployed or underemployed at higher rates than other groups with disabilities and the population at large. ASD encompasses a range of behaviors with the potential to interfere with productivity within the workplace. Research has supported management of these behaviors, through methods such as self-monitoring, may improve community access and employment. A singlesubject withdrawal design was utilized to evaluate the functional relationship between implementation of the I-Connect self-monitoring intervention and inappropriate vocalizations, with secondary measurement of work engagement and hair pulling behaviors. An adult female with ASD received training on the use of the I-Connect self-monitoring application in her work place medical records setting. Introduction of the I-Connect self-monitoring application resulted in an immediate decrease in inappropriate vocalizations. Social validity measures suggest the application was easy to utilize and may be beneficial in increasing a person’s perceived ability to regulate inappropriate vocalizations in a work environment.
Self-monitoring, Employment, Autism spectrum disorder, Webbased application, Vocalizations
Self-monitoring for High School Students with Disabilities: A Cross-categorical Investigation of I-Connect (2016)
Clemons, L. L., Mason, B. A., Garrison-Kane, L., & Wills, H. P. (2016). Self-monitoring for high school students with disabilities: A cross-categorical investigation of I-Connect. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 18(3), 145-155. doi.org/10.1177/1098300715596134
Self-monitoring interventions are well supported within the empirical literature as improving classroom engagement for students with disabilities. However, studies implementing self-monitoring interventions in high school settings are rarely conducted despite their potential to improve student academic and behavioral outcomes. In an investigation of an unobtrusive, self-monitoring application loaded on a handheld device, classroom engagement and perceived academic benefits were assessed in a withdrawal design for three high school students with different disabilities (specific learning disability, autism, and intellectual disability) in varied instructional arrangements. Direct observation data supported the intervention as effective in improving classroom engagement for all three students during intervention and maintenance phases.
Technology Delivered Self- monitoring Application to Promote Successful Inclusion of an Elementary Student with Autism (2016)
Rosenbloom, R., Mason, R. A., Wills, H. P., & Mason, B. A. (2016). Technology delivered self-monitoring application to promote successful inclusion of an elementary student with autism. Assistive Technology, 28(1), 9-16. doi.org/10.1080/10400435.2015.1059384
The ever-increasing prevalence of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is paralleled in public educational settings, including general education classrooms. Challenges with social/behavioral functioning, including limited self-management and behavior inhibition, can lead to off-task and disruptive behaviors that interfere with acquisition of academic and social skills. Without effective and efficient interventions, opportunities to participate in inclusive settings will likely be reduced. Self-monitoring (SM) is an intervention with strong evidence for increasing prosocial behaviors and decreasing challenging behaviors for students with ASD in educational settings, although the cuing mechanisms (e.g., timers, stopwatch) and tracking materials (e.g., paper, pencil) can be cumbersome and obtrusive. I-Connect is an SM application that allows for customizable prompts, recording, and data monitoring. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, utilizing an ABAB design, the functional relationship between implementation of I-Connect SM intervention and increases in on-task behavior with concurrent decreases in disruptive behavior for an elementary student with ASD in a general education classroom. Results indicate an immediate increase in on-task behavior as well as a decrease in disruptive behaviors with each introduction of I-Connect. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.
Use of a Self-monitoring Application to Reduce Stereotypic Behavior in Adolescents with Autism: A Preliminary Investigation of I-Connect (2015)
Crutchfield, S. A., Mason, R. A., Chambers, A., Wills, H. P., & Mason, B. A. (2015). Use of a self-monitoring application to reduce stereotypic behavior in adolescents with autism: A preliminary investigation of I-Connect. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45(5), 1146-1155. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-014-2272-x
Many students with autism engage in a variety of complex stereotypic behaviors, impacting task completion and interfering with social opportunities. Self-monitoring is an intervention with empirical support for individuals with ASD to increase behavioral repertoires and decrease behaviors that are incompatible with successful outcomes. However, there is limited evidence for its utility for decreasing stereotypy, particularly for adolescents in school settings. This study evaluated the functional relationship between I-Connect, a technology-delivered self-monitoring program, and decreases in the level of stereotypy for two students with ASD in the school setting utilizing a withdrawal design with an embedded multiple baseline across participants. Both students demonstrated a marked decrease in stereotypy with the introduction of the self-monitoring application. Results and implications for practice and future research will be discussed.
Autism, Self-monitoring, Stereotypic behavior, Technology-based application
Implementation of a Self-monitoring Application to Improve On-task Behavior: A High School Pilot Study (2014)
Wills, H. P., & Mason, B. A. (2014). Implementation of a self-monitoring application to improve on-task behavior: A high school pilot study. Journal of Behavioral Education, 23(4), 421-434. doi.org/10.1007/s10864-014-9204-x
Technological innovations offer promise for improving intervention implementation in secondary, inclusive classrooms. A withdrawal design was employed with two high-school students in order to assess the effectiveness of a technologically delivered, self-monitoring intervention in improving on-task behavior in a science classroom. Two students ages 14 and 15 with diagnoses of specific learning disability (Student 1) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; Student 2) were selected by case manager referral due to difficulties with on-task behavior despite long-term administration of psychostimulant medication. After baseline data were collected, both students were trained in the use of a self-monitoring application (I-Connect) delivered via a handheld tablet. On-task prompts were delivered at 5-min intervals in an ABAB withdrawal design. The intervention resulted in positive, stable improvements in the primary dependent variable of on-task behavior for both students and less clear improvement in the generalization variable of disruptive behavior.
Self-management, Self-monitoring, Intervention, Emotional/behavioral disorders, High school
I-Connect Research Briefs
The following documents visually summarize research conducted using the I-Connect intervention. These briefs address the impacts of I-Connect in the classroom and workplace focusing on individuals with IEP’s and populations that have a diverse range of needs:
Decreasing Inappropriate Behaviors
I-Connect: Decreasing Inappropriate Behaviors in the Workplace for Adults with Autism. Most adults with ASD are not employed throughout their working careers even though they are capable of successful employment. Click the following link for more information:
I-Connect Research Brief- Decreasing Inappropriate Behaviors
Reducing Stereotypic Behaviors
I-Connect: Promoting Independence and Reducing Stereotypic Behavior in Adolescents with Autism. Self-monitoring has been supported by research for individuals with ASD in order to increase desirable behavioral repertoires as well as decrease behaviors unsuited with successful outcomes:
Self-Monitoring in High School
I-Connect: Self-Monitoring for Students in High School with Disabilities. HS students with disabilities is an underserved population in intervention research in spite of the potential to improve student academic and behaviorial outcomes. Click on the following link for more information:
I-Connect Research Brief- Self-Monitoring for Students in High School
I-Connect: Integrated Independence for High School Students with Disabilities. Technological innovations offer promise for intervention implementation improvement. Click on the following link for more information:
I-Connect for Adolescent ASD
This study investigated the impact of using I-Connect to self-monitoring on task behavior, and the related impact of this intervention on task completion and disruptive behavior for 4 adolescent students with a medical diagnosis of ASD and/or receiving special education under the eligibility of Autism. Click on the following link for more information:
I-Connect Research Brief-On task, disruptive, task completion Adolescent ASD
Improving Behavioral & Academic Accuracy
This study investigated the impact of self-monitoring using I-Connect on on-task behavior and academic accuracy for 2 high school aged students with medical diagnoses of ASD and ADHD. 2 high school aged students, receiving special education and a teacher reported history of high rates of “off task behavior”Click on the following link for more information:
I-Connect Research Brief-Improving Behavioral & Academic Accuracy for High School Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder
I-Connect for Transition Aged Individuals with ASD
Self-Management strategies such as self-monitoring can help students with ASD to maintain attention and focus in school, home and community settings. This study investigated the impact of self-monitoring using I-Connect on on-task behavior for a 19 year old postsecondary student with ASD:
I-Connect Research Brief-Improving On-task behavior for transition aged individuals with ASD
Improving Outcomes for Students with ASD
This study investigated the impact of self-monitoring using I-Connect on behavioral and academic outcomes for 2 elemenatry aged students with ASD. Conducted in a rural elementary school in a Midwestern state. Two elementary aged students, receiving special education under an ASD eligibility and teacher reported high rates of “off task behavior”
Improving Behavioral and Academic Outcomes for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Enabling Inclusion for Students with ASD
This study investigated the impact of self-monitoring using I-Connect on behavioral and academic outcomes for 2 elemenatry aged students with ASD. 9-year-old elementary aged student, with a diagnosis of High Functioning ASD with a reported history of high rates of off task and disruptive behavior resulting in frequent removal from the general education environment.
Technology delivered self-monitoring application to promote successful inclusion of an elementary student with autism
Ready to get started?
Get in touch, or create an account.